LECTURE BY PROF. YEMI OSINBAJO THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA, SAN, GCON AT THE FOUNDATION DAY LECTURE OF THE ELIZADE UNIVERSITY ON 8TH JULY 2016.
Let me begin by paying my deep respect to the founder of this institution, Chief Ade Ojo. A man who has shown that you can do business honestly and fairly and still be wealthy and successful. By establishing this University and several other good deeds he has also demonstrated that the real value of wealth or status is in the service that is rendered by such means to others. I am extremely honored to have been invited to give this Foundation day lecture.
The Future is Here…….Earlier than we thought.
If there is to be a description of the 21st Century, it most likely will be called the age of change. Suddenly the dreams, fantasies, and fears of the 20th Century are crystallizing. From the dazzling innovations in technology and science to the frightening manifestations of Climate Change, the future is certainly here with a bang! While developments and change are to be expected, the point to note here is the completely profound nature of this new day. The implications are so far reaching for every aspect of our lives. The way we teach, the way we learn, what we learn, language and vocabulary.
There are also huge implications for healthcare, communication, information, human rights, commerce, the notions of ownership and title etc.
I intend in this lecture to attempt a broad sweep through some of the most significant developments in various aspects of human existence, and their impact on lives and livelihoods generally, but particularly in Nigeria. Also, we will also attempt to define how these developments will impact education, jobs economies and the way we live our lives.
In other words, how far reaching are these changes? Will they mean more or less jobs, faster or slower? economic growth? Can our current educational philosophy and curricula cope?
Let us begin our journey with the coming of the so called disruptive innovations. A disruptive innovation is an innovation which disrupts or upsets an existing market, displacing established market leaders by creating a new market. Many of these innovations are technologies and so they are described as disruptive technologies. Of this group one of the most fascinating are those called Network Orchestrators. “These companies rely for their inventory on intangibles such as knowledge or relationships, or other people’s assets. create a network of peers in which the participants interact and share in the value creation……they may sell products or services, build relationships, share advice give reviews, collaborate, co-create, examples include, eBay, Red hat, Visa, Uber, Tripadvisor and Alibaba. Indeed, Digital disruption has transformed industries and created new value, new market leaders and new opportunities.
Uber is today the largest taxi company in the world. Yet it does not own a single Taxi nor employ a single driver. Their drivers mostly own their own cars. It Allows a consumer to order a taxi at the tap of their smartphone screen. The San Francisco-headquartered company is estimated to be worth between $40bn and $50bn. Kalanick and Garrett Camp co-founded Uber. They had trouble hailing a cab on a snowy night. So, they came up with a simple idea—tap a button, get a ride. By simply using an UBER app on your phone, …today you can call an Uber taxi in most major cities in the world including Abuja and Lagos.
Airbnb is the world’s Largest accommodation provider. But it owns no real estate, enabling house and apartment owners to generate additional income by renting out their properties for nights and weekends. Airbnb is valued at $25.5bn,
Alibaba was founded by Jack Ma a 32year old teacher in 1998. Customers use Alibaba to shop online, sell unwanted goods and make online payments. Alibaba has two retail sites: Taobao, which features thousands of non-brand name products sold by smaller merchants; and Tmall, which offers brand-name products. The two sites are hugely popular, and collectively account for more than half of all parcel deliveries in China. Last year, when the company went public on the New York Stock Exchange, it netted $25bn in the biggest IPO in history.
But why is Alibaba a disruptive innovation wonder. It is because Alibaba doesn’t have retail premises, no stores, and nor does it carry any inventory,( no warehouses) rather it simply facilitates the exchange of goods for money.
Reed Hastings a maths teacher founded Netflix. Netflix is now the World largest movie house yet it owns no cinemas. It operates by a fully-fledged streaming service with over 69.1m subscribers worldwide, Netflix is the world’s leading Internet television network with over 81 million members in over 190 countries enjoying more than 125 million hours of TV shows and movies per day, including original series, documentaries and feature films. Members can watch as much as they want, anytime, anywhere, on nearly any Internet-connected screen. Members can play, pause and resume watching, all without commercials or commitments.
Facebook: is probably today the most popular media owner in the world. But unlike the best known media owners, the big newspaper or TV companies, Facebook creates no content of its own. It expresses no opinions or views, it’s business model is to create the technology platform for everyone to share their own content, whether it is personal, political, religious or just sheer trivia.
How about YouTube? a global video-sharing web-site created by three former PayPal employees in February 2005. Barely a year after it was founded, November 2006, it was bought by Google for US$1.65 billion. YouTube again creates no content of its own, it relies for content on those who have something interesting, sometimes even scandalous to share, it gives the power to be viewed globally to anyone willing to share a video. The free platform that YouTube gives has not only made profit for the company from advertising revenues, it has also created other hugely successful businesses. For a quick example, according to Forbes, Nigerian/ British YouTube blogger Olajide Jaj Olatunji made about $4.5 million dollars in a year as a YouTube video game commentator. He has 10.8 million subscribers and 2 billion views. There are today YouTube bloggers who have become famous and rich by teaching hairstyling, even advising on the best types of hair extensions and other beauty tips to buy. Amateur makeup artists and teachers of everything from aerobics to how to make moi-moi, every idea has a free platform on YouTube. YouTube’s free platform has redefined advertising. Advertising to the world is free, and if you or your product gets famous you attract advertising revenue for yourself and for YouTube.
Skype, and WhatsApp are the largest phone companies own no telecoms infrastructure. Here in Nigeria many young people are using technology to disrupt existing assumptions and create new markets and opportunities. Nollywood films- Jason Njoku is not an actor or movie producer but he has used technology to create a new line of business in the Nollywood film industry. He is the proprietor of the Iroko tv made the Iroko brand the largest mainstream licensors and distributors of over 5,000 Nollywood films and African Music. Iroko has attracted $20 million in equity. Or, the story of Jobberman, which was listed in the Forbes Magazine Top 10 Tech startups in Africa.
Jobberman’s story is a fascinating one. In 2009, Olalekan Elude, Ayodeji Adewunmi and Opeyemi Awoyemi at the time students of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ife, started a site called Jobberman in their hostel to help connect people looking for work with companies looking to hire. Now Jobberman is one of the top 100 websites in Nigeria, and it gets 5,000 applications every day. Just last May Max Zuckerberg mentioned them as one of the major technology innovators in Nigeria. They have grown the company into a multimillion-dollar company. The young founders have now divested their interests in the company and are investing in other young Nigerian startups themselves. Jobberman follows the same principle as the others, they simply link supply and demand.
Venture Garden Group, is another story of creating new markets and opportunities within existing markets. Venture Garden is a data driven automation company founded by three young Nigerians average age of 28, the company focuses on big data, automation and revenue assurance systems and has taken innovation to new levels.
For example, one of the subsidiaries, PowerTech provides automation for the National power grid which now allows real-time monitoring of energy flow from generation to distribution and payment to all parties, to promote transparency and sustainability of the electricity market.
Social Media is possibly the internet’s most astounding phenomenon. It has created its own economy, its own stars, and its own new logic about what is newsworthy, about fame and what it takes to be famous today, and how to profit from that fame. But most importantly it has redefined the Press and journalism. Today bloggers such as Bella Naija, Linda Ikeji, and news aggregators like Nairaland command larger readership than regular print newspapers. Linda Ikeji alone has more people reading her blog than any Nigerian newspaper. Nairaland, founded in 2003 by 20 year old Seun Osewa, claims about 1.6 million subscribers, several times more readers than the combined number of readers of all Nigerian papers put together. Nairaland creates no content of its own. To start off it cost Seun Osewa less than 10,000 Naira a month and Internet access, to build this multi million Naira business.
How about the new meaning and concept of Fame. Many of us have heard of the Kardashian family, a family of socialites who later became reality show stars. Their reality show keeping up with the Kardashians is simply about their family life, love life, squabbles, fashion, and other essential trivial matters. Someone said that they are famous for being famous! But They have converted their fame to cash, endorsing or creating fragrances, make up, diet pills, and fashion items that are wildly popular. Kim Kardashian has 76.2 million followers on Instagram. Just to compare, CNN the famous NEWS network has about 1 million primetime viewers daily. It achieves over 16million viewers on US general election night. A video of Kim Kardashian kissing her baby got 11 million views! Of the top 10 most followed people on Instagram three of them are from the Kardashian/Jenner family. Whatever it is there is no doubt that social media has tapped into something that has been waiting for expression for centuries. The human drama. The interest of people in the personal lives of others. The search for some kind of authenticity, some reality, the desire of many to share their lives and experiences, to express themselves. Social Media is a whole new frontier of opportunity. There are as many more ideas untapped than have been discovered on social media.
On Tuesday as I was putting finishing touches to this lecture I received information about the South Korea’s launch of its nationwide Internet of Things Network. What is the Internet of things? Some have called it the fourth Industrial revolution. Let me explain it as I understand it. Before now, the internet connected people to each other. So we sent email to each other or communicated by tweeter, email Facebook etc. but now with the Internet of things our devices such as phones, laptops etc will be able to speak to other devices and electronic items without us initiating the contact each time. So it will be possible for my phone to tell me if I have no power at home, or I left the iron on or left the lights on, but more importantly my phone can do something about my carelessness.It can switch off the iron or the lights. Commenting on the Capacity of the South Korean Internet of things network, one source says that “The service can host devices that track the location of people, vehicles, objects and assets, as needed. For instance, SK is working with local governments on Safe Watch, a smartwatch for children and the elderly that lets parents or careers keep track of the wearer, which launches later this month.
Monitoring is also a key focus, which will allow manufacturing and commercial facilities to manage the safety and efficiency of their equipment and environment. Temperature, humidity, CO2 concentration and hazardous materials in the soil and air can all be monitored to maintain desired levels.”
Manufacturing is also undergoing its biggest and fastest revolution. Again, it is technology driven. The use of Robots in manufacturing. The Robotics revolution is here with all of its massive implications for productivity, quality but also loss of jobs for humans.
As robots become smarter, faster and cheaper, they’re being called upon to do more. They’re taking on more “human” capabilities and traits such as sensing, dexterity, memory and trainability.
Also, a new generation of “collaborative” robots is working hand-in-hand with human workers who train them through physical demonstration. These new robots are working as partners with humans. The cost of using robotic labor is getting a lot lower than the cost of using human labor, While the automotive industry continues to be the primary driver of growth in robotics non-automotive industries are also gaining steam
Robotics must immediately remind us of the amazing developments in the use of Drones or more technically known as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs.) Drones are unmanned aircraft, that were, as with many other technological innovations pioneered for Military use and are now actively being used commercially and domestically. American military drones fitted with precision equipment and missiles have been used more frequently and with more devastating consequences in the last ten years. Drones are now more in use in law enforcement especially as a replacement for helicopters in tracking and apprehending criminal suspects in flight. Drones are now replacing helicopters in aerial inspection of large farmlands. Drone technology is already making waves in architecture, Swiss architecture firm Gramazio Kohler Architects and roboticist Raffaello D’Andrea collaborated with ETH Zürich to program a fleet of drones to lift and stack thousands of polystyrene bricks at the FRAC Centre in Orléans, France. The project was called flight assembled architecture. They built a 6-meter-tall tower. The architects said that the project was to prove how drones could be used in the future to design and build towers and high rise buildings more efficiently than before.
Just last Sunday on the grounds of Aguda house the residence of the Vice President at the Aso Villa, a young visitor flew his drone over the lawn taking photographs over a one-kilometer radius. At many events in Lagos and Abuja drones have become the smart way to shoot videos. To paraphrase Noah Poponak of Goldman Sachs from construction to cinematography to law enforcement, drone technology is proving to be safer, more efficient and cheaper than previous ways of doing the same things.
Let’s turn to the car-making Industry or the automotive industry as it is more smartly called, is today the largest user of robots in manufacturing. However, it is the growing production and market for electric cars that has created both hope and alarm. An electric car is simply a car that is powered by electrical motors usually from electrical energy stored in batteries rather than fuel. The batteries are recharged in recharging stations. So recharging stations are now a replacement for fuel stations.
Last year Electric Vehicles or EVs grew by 60%. Japan has more electric car charge points than petrol stations. Both Japan and China are aggressively investing in and encouraging the use of Electric cars. Both offer subsidies to buyers of Electric cars. Fairly conservative analysis indicate that by 2040, long-range electric cars will cost less than $22,000, according to the projections and thirty-five percent of new cars worldwide will have a plug, I.e. be electric cars. The most frightening implication of this for oil producing countries such as Nigeria is that it means less oil consumption by Asian countries who today are our major oil markets. Bloomberg estimates that electric vehicles could displace oil demand of 2 million barrels a day as early as 2023. That would create a glut of oil equivalent to what triggered the 2014 oil crisis.
But how about self-driving cars now being produced by Toyota, Mercedes. And the autonomous cars, cars that take over driving from the driver in specific situations, for example self-parking, and of course cruise control.
Google is one of the most aggressive innovators in the self-driving car category. The company has in fact indicated that the driverless car technology in development within its Google X research lab is from two to five years from being ready for widespread use.
Chris Urmson, the Google executive in charge of the project, discussed the imminent possibility of autonomous vehicles patrolling neighbourhoods to pick up and drop off passengers
But it is perhaps in medicine that some of the most incredible innovations and futuristic ideas are coming into use with the greatest rapidity. Digital technology has accelerated medical advances in diagnosis, treatment, and health preservation. From electronic aspirin for people suffering from migraines or other chronic head or facial pains (Autonomic Technologies), to needle free diabetes care using a patch(Echo) and even Hypo-sprays injections without needles, it is clear that the next few years promise astonishing leaps in healthcare.
Telemedicine, the system of health care delivery in which physicians examine distant patients through the use of telecommunications technology is becoming more available.
Eric Topol a geneticist said recently “Doctors can remotely and continuously monitor each heartbeat, moment-to-moment blood pressure readings, the rate and depth of breathing, body temperature, oxygen concentration in the blood, glucose, brain waves, activity, mood. “For the first time, we can digitize humans.” Telemedicine is very quickly removing geographical barriers from consideration in medical treatment. Teleoncology now makes it possible for a cancer patient in Nigeria to access expert diagnosis or even consult with experts across the world on video platforms, Telepsychiatry, enables psychiatrists anywhere in the world to provide treatment to patients remotely. Just this May some publicity came for a software called Proximie which enables surgeons to lead surgical operations from thousands of miles away. The software could be loaded on an IPAD or a smartphone. The software enables the doctors to see a live camera feed of the operation. The surgeon sees this and can then mark the exact point where an incision needs to be done on his own device which then appears on the device of the doctors on location. Telesurgery can now literally bring the surgeon into a theatre thousands of miles away.
For the average person with no serious health challenges requiring sophisticated processes, the future is also here. Portable diagnostic technology allows anyone to generate their own reliable health diagnosis. Researchers at the University of Cambridge in 2014 developed a mobile application which “could make diagnosis and monitoring of kidney disease, urinary tract infections, HIV, Malaria and diabetes easier. It can also facilitate the speedy transfer of medical data from the field to doctors or centralized laboratories.
But one of the greatest wonders of this time is the 3D printing or additive manufacturing. 3D printing is simply making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file. So, using that technology a fashion shoe designer can print in 3D a solid prototype of his design ready to wear! But it is in the area of surgery that 3D printing has made its most jaw-dropping impact. Just this Tuesday surgeons at the Indiana University School of Dentistry were able to replace the jaw of a man damaged by cancer with a 3D printed jaw. Four University of Toronto Engineering students won a prize for their PrintAlive Bioprinter. A 3D printer which potentially could create new skin for burn victims. Today Ninety-five percent of all hearing aids are 3D printed. Align Technology prints 650,000 pairs of Invisalign teeth-straightening braces a day. This technology is also pushing into prosthetics. There are also custom-made back braces for scoliosis patients and casts for broken bones (perforated with holes so people can finally scratch through their casts). Some of the best minds on the subject believe that, ”
The biggest news is in organ printing. While the bioprinting of whole organs is still a little way off, a California-based research company, has printed human liver tissue for drug toxicity testing purposes. Once we’re capable of whole organ printing, dying patients will no longer suffer an interminable wait while they discover if they’ve been selected to receive a lifesaving organ. Instead, soon, we’ll be able to make organs from our own stem cells and replace them when needed, and all without the fear of rejection or lifelong dependence on harsh drugs” the future is certainly here;
Formal Education, both in terms of content and delivery, is certainly another area that has been radically impacted by technology and innovation in this decade. The changes even locally are as dramatic as they are profound. Take a secondary school student in Osun State for example. Before June 4 2013 a student had to buy several textbooks and a few years of past question papers. However, in 2013 Osun State introduced the Opon Imo, an electronic learning tablet, which enables self-paced learning. The tablet provides three major content categories, namely, E-Library, virtual classroom and an integrated zone. The virtual classroom contains 63 e-books covering 17 academic subjects for examinations conducted by NECO, WAEC, and JAMB as well as material on enterprise education, civics and sexuality education. The Integrated Test Zone has over 40,000 JAMB and WAEC practice questions dating back twenty years. The device will save the State N8.4Billion extra it would have spent to provide hard copies of the text books. The tablet can record audio lessons. The tablet has clearly revolutionized learning, making it cheaper and far more effective. It gives the student more control allowing him to pace himself in his learning. The E-Library bridges the huge gap of lack of libraries and books by making books available electronically. By simply enabling Internet facilities on the device the student can access useful e-libraries all over the world. It certainly is a new day.
Incidentally one of the youth employment initiatives of the Federal Government called NPower, offers 500,000 unemployed graduates opportunities to be trained as a volunteer teachers, agricultural extension workers and public health officials. All applications are online, and each successful applicant will get a device developed by Samsung in collaboration with Microsoft, Intel, MTN, and LEARNAFRICA. The device is a teaching tool which contains a broad range of teaching materials, including technology training materials software writing, and access to several electronic learning sources. MTN proposes to provide free Internet access. The result is that we will for the first time be conducting the largest completely on-line training and empowerment, as well as monitoring and evaluation in Nigeria. Without technology it would have been well near impossible to train 500,000 persons within three months, given the cost and space constraints of such a venture.
Applications for JAMB and examinations are now on-line, results are also electronically generated. The automation of education has moved faster than we imagined even here in Nigeria. It is evident that the quantum leap is only delayed by the current deficit, in power, bandwidth and other infrastructure.
The digitizing of education is growing in leaps and bounds. Today many school systems around the world are teaching software writing. Estonia a small country of about 1.3million people, and the birth place of SKYPE is way ahead in terms of digital education for children. It started a programme a few years ago of teaching children programming languages from the age of 7. The children will learn by practice the necessary skills for coding such as logic, which of course will be helpful in developing maths, artificial intelligence especially robotics.
Learning and teaching are changing quickly. Learning by rote or simply cramming facts and downloading in exams has long died in most educational systems. Critical thinking, problem solving, application of rules to problems are the critical components of the new normal in teaching and testing.
Advanced technology is changing job requirements, many types of skills and knowledge are no longer as relevant as they used to be. New skills mostly technology related are quickly replacing the old. Two weeks ago, at the Section on Business law dinner of the Nigeria Bar Association, we talked about the changes to expect even in what lawyers may be able to charge fees for. New apps are already available that could offer basic legal advice on a wide variety of subjects which before now a lawyer could charge fees for. Even researching legal points has been made far easier by the incredibly fast and efficient electronic legal cases and materials platforms that are able to pull together relevant cases and statutes on any point, pointing out cases that have been overruled or statutes abrogated. The lawyer must now begin to rework his skills. The clients will definitely expect more.
It is in recognition of the central role of innovation and technology in our National economic growth plan that The Federal Government’s in the current budget provided extensively for technology and innovation. This year we are establishing technology innovation hubs across the country. Two super hubs, one in Lagos and Abuja and 6 regional hubs in the six geopolitical zones. In partnership with several major technology companies the hubs will be fully resourced with infrastructure, and capacity building tools. Each hub will be designed to produce relevant innovative technology solutions to a wide range of business, commercial and government problems. For example; alternative energy solutions, creative technology, public services delivery in health, education and government processes, import substitution, and the likes. Several major technology companies are partnering with us in the provision of infrastructure and opportunity in the hubs.
Also, starting in July of this year, we have budgeted for the training of 65,000 young Nigerians in hardware and software services, and more sophisticated software services such as animation. This will mean that we will be building more local capacity to build, assemble hardware, and to write innovative programmes. We also will be focusing on technology for media and entertainment. We intend to create a reservoir of human capacity in technology that can be exported internationally. Nigeria can lead India as a market for technology and innovation talent.
We have launched a special presidential initiative on innovative technology, and startups. and presentations of prospective participants have been done in Lagos and Abuja. We will be bringing together to the villa 50 of the most innovative technology start-ups. They will be meeting with major technology and innovation companies as well as venture capital collaborating with the federal government to take their ideas to the next level.
We are also creating technology opportunities in our import substitution and diversification plan by encouraging innovative technologies to spearhead smart domestic production. For example, in Agriculture, our extension services will map and match soil data with best crop and harvest practices, ensuring farmers get relevant and tailored advice, via cloud technology. Also, we see immense possibilities for medicine and education.
So, what do we do with the arrival of these futuristic developments probably sooner than expected. I think we must first accept that many skills will become irrelevant and many jobs will no longer exist. I wonder how many of us here know that years ago typing and shorthand were very marketable skills and many bright ladies especially even went abroad to study these skills as part of their secretarial training course. Today everybody types, even I typed my entire speech on my IPAD.
Today the closest position to that of the confidential secretary is an executive assistant or personal assistant who is expected to have strong technology skills and should be able to prepare presentations electronically and draft good letters and even speeches. In manufacturing many routine jobs are being and will be replaced by robots. Robots do not get tired, ask for sick leave, or more pay, and of course they don’t go on strike. To be ahead of the game we must be able to add value in more innovative ways including managing the robot run shop floor. Teaching and learning must now take these issues into account. What type of skills set will the shop floor or factory of tomorrow need? It is clear that we must restructure our approach to teaching. New apprenticeship type programmes are necessary which will ensure that students are directly involved in the thinking, and development of ideas. Innovation laboratories may become the new way of getting best value in the management sciences. The disruptive technologies we have seen in UBER, NETFLIX and IROKO TV, show us that new patterns of creating value using technology are emerging. The student of business administration or other management sciences today must be thinking of the new vistas of disruptive technology. Innovation, thinking out of the box is critical. Innovative thinking is challenging the status quo in conception and processes. How does one develop that skill? It is by reading, studying the ideas of others those that succeeded and those that failed. Understanding the thought processes that led to innovative ideas. Understanding the way technology works, the latest thoughts and ideas and how then can be adapted to new situations or old situations requiring fresh thinking. Anyone who doesn’t read extensively today will be out of the competition for good value jobs or opportunities.
A new emphasis on collaboration, team work, jointly developing ideas, which as opposed to competition in the classroom will deliver better results. In any event that is how it works in the real world, researchers collaborate and achieve faster and sounder results.
For any student today, I think we must appreciate that this is the age of multi-tasking. You cannot just be an economist, an accountant, a graduate of international relations, mass comm or performing arts. Multi-skilling is crucial today. Lolade Abiola is a 25 year old power expert who works with me. She is also a trained helicopter pilot. She understands how to make an execute business plans. You must learn to be a man or woman of affairs, a versatile operator not a mono-skilled graduate. There are many opportunities and practically anything can be learnt on-line. And whatever you chose to do, be technology savvy and understand its best uses in your chosen discipline. Any student at all ought to be familiar with the international trading platforms. So, you should have a small trading account, follow the trend of shares and stocks in the markets, read business and financial papers regularly, understand money and how it works. Everyone has a right to be rich, age is not a barrier. For those in the performing and film arts there are important opportunities today, not just in actually performing, but in the effective management of talents, their programmes and projects. Today every good concert needs well trained managers who understand how the industry works and how to leverage the international entertainment value-chain. Isn’t it time for the uberification of Nollywood? To make actors and actresses, especially new talents more visible to filmmakers? The exciting thing is that anyone even a microbiologist can be the next innovator in the entertainment industry. Such is the versatility of multi-tasking. A new market for the performing arts but also for any other takers is animation. Creating animated cartoons for movies, education, entertainment and advertising is a new growth area and it is attracting talents from every discipline including fine arts, architecture, software writing, screenplay writing, and others in film production generally. Companies like Spore dust Media, Orange VFX, Commotion Studios, Cerebral Studios. Polstrat, Are some of the front runners in animation in Nigeria. One of the fast growing Nigerian animation companies was founded by a young lawyer.
We have taken a fairly broad sweep through the incredible and sometimes simply astonishing developments in our world and have tried to show just how quickly and dramatically things have changed. We have also tried to show how we may profitably respond to the new experiences we encounter daily. The next decade will in my respectful view see even more amazing developments, some so startling and so destabilizing. However, it is important to bear in mind that through all of the twists and turns of life, and as we contend with the issues and …some things principles remain constant and we must hold on to them. The first is that hard-work and diligence will never be old fashioned, the second is no-one is too young or too old to be creative or innovative. The world belongs to the brave and daring. Third is integrity, let all who deal with you know that you can be trusted, everyone even thieves want to do business with a man or woman of integrity, the last and most important is a scripture I love: the wisest man who ever lived on earth, Solomon gave this advice on life, he said;
“…the race is not to the swift, the battle is not to the strong, nor bread to the wise, nor riches to men of understanding, nor favor to men of skill, but time and chance happen to them all…” Eccl.9.11
But who controls time and chance? The Almighty God.
Thank you for your attention.